The Country & People of Sudan
This page contains links to sites in Sudan and Sudan related sites.
For Middle East, North Africa, Arab and regional information visit Arab Countries
Sudan, officially Republic of the Sudan, republic (1995 est. pop. 30,120,000), 967,494 sq mi (2,505,813 sq km), the largest country in Africa, bordered by Egypt (N), the Red Sea (NE), Eritrea and Ethiopia (E), Kenya, Uganda, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (S), the Central African Republic and Chad (W), and Libya (NW). The principal cities are Khartoum (the capital) and Omdurman. The most notable geographical feature is the Nile R., which, with its tributaries, flows through eastern Sudan from south to north. Rainfall in Sudan diminishes from south to north; thus the southern part of the country is characterized by swampland and rain forest, the central region by savanna and grassland, and the north by desert and semidesert. There are mountains in the northeast, south, arab, and west; the highest point is Kinyetti (10,456 ft/3,187 m), in the southeast. Agriculture, mostly of a subsistence nature, dominates the economy. Long-staple cotton, the principal cash crop, is raised in the irrigated Al Gezira region. Other crops include sesame, sorghum, millet, peanuts, dates, and sugarcane. Cotton, sesame, gum arabic (much of the world's production), livestock, and peanuts are exported. The small mining industry extracts chromite, copper and manganese ores, gypsum, and gold. Industry is largely devoted to the processing of agricultural products. The population is divided into three main groups: northerners, who are Muslim and speak Arabic (the official language); westerners, largely Muslim and originally (20th cent.) from W Africa; and southerners, who follow traditional beliefs mostly and speak Nilotic languages. There is a Christian minority in the south.
Northeast Sudan, called Nubia in ancient times, was colonized by Egypt about 2000 BC and was ruled by the Cush kingdom from the 8th cent. BC to the 4th cent AD Most of Nubia was converted to Coptic Christianity in the 6th cent., but by the 15th cent. Islam prevailed. In 1821 the north was conquered by Egypt, but a revolt by the nationalist Mahdi in 1881 forced an Egyptian withdrawal. In the 1890s an Anglo-Egyptian force under Herbert Kitchener destroyed the theocratic Mahdist state, and in 1899 most of Sudan came under the joint rule of Egypt and Britain (with Britain exercising actual control).
Independence was achieved in 1956. In 1955 the animist southerners, fearing that the new nation would be dominated by the Muslim north, began a civil war that lasted 17 years. In 1972 Pres. Muhammad Gaafar al-Nimeiry ended the war by granting the south a measure of autonomy. However, his imposition of Islamic law on the entire country in 1983 reopened the conflict, and close to 2 million have died since, many from starvation.
Nimeiry was deposed by a military coup in 1986. A short-lived civilian government was overthrown in 1989 by Lt. Gen. Omar Hassan al-Bashir; he officially became president in 1993 and was elected to the post in 1996. Bashir's government reinstituted Islamic law, banned opposition parties, and jailed dissidents. Throughout the 1990s the army mounted offensives against the rebels in S Sudan; several cease-fires were announced to allow the distribution of food to famine victims, but they did not hold. In recent years Sudan has supported Muslim fundamentalists internationally.
In 1998 U.S. missiles destroyed a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum that was suspected of manufacturing chemical weapon compounds to be used in terrorist activities, but international investigators were unable to find evidence to support the charges.
In late 1999 a power struggle developed between Bashir and the speaker of the parliament, Hassan al-Turabi. Bashir dissolved parliament and in 2000 also secured his control of the ruling National Congress party. In Dec. 2000 he was reelected president, and his party swept the parlimentary elections; the opposition boycotted the vote. Turabi was put under house arrest in Feb. 2001 after signing an agreement with the rebels calling for peaceful resistance to Bashir's government.
The government and rebels agreed in July 2002 to a framework for peace that called for autonomy for the south and a referendum on independence after six years, and a truce was signed in October. Despite some cease-fire violations, talks continued in 2003. The Darfur rebels subsequently agreed to form alliance with the Beja rebels in NE Sudan (around Kasala) if they were not included in any settlement with the government; the Beja group had expected to be part of the negotiations with the southern rebels.
Militias allied with the government in Darfur (and the government itself) were accused of ethnic cleansing, and perhaps as many as 800,000 Sudanese were displaced by the fighting, with many of them fleeing to Chad. A new cease-fire was signed in Apr., 2004, but it too did not hold. Also in April, Turabi and members of his party were again arrested by the government, which accused them of plotting against it; in September the government asserted that a new coup plot involving the jailed Turabi had been uncovered.
There was increasing pressure in mid-2004 from the United Nations, United States, and European Union on Sudan to end the attacks in Darfur, and in July, 2004, Bashir’s government promised the United Nations that it would disarm the militias. A lack of significant progress in ending the fighting and disarming the militias led to UN Security Council resolutions against Sudan in July and September. The latter resolution called for an investigation into whether the attacks were genocide, as U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell had charged. By October it was estimated that 1.5 million had been displaced by the conflict in Darfur. Meanwhile, there were attacks against Sudanese in the south by the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), a Ugandan rebel group, leading both southern Sudanese rebels and government-allied militias to mount a drive against the
Copyright (c) 2003 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.
General information, cities, towns, municipalities, places, flag, maps, useful Information....
Economy, reports, statistics, banks, directories, jobs, investment, promotion....
General resources, heritage, art, literature, photography, cinema, music, song, dance, cultural, scientific,
environmental, sporting entities & info....
Schools, colleges, academies, universities, polytechnics, institutions, research, resources, projects....
Ancient & modern history, human rights, politics & political parties, related sites, articles....
Newspapers, magazines, news, newsletters, news agencies, radio, TV, internet, articles, reports, cartoons....
Government, ministries, overseas missions, embassies, corporations, organizations, industrial entities, centers,
public hospitals, institutions, societies, foreign entities....
Airlines, air, sea & coach charters services, travel, tours, guides, hotels, resorts, inns, hostels, health,
travel tips, weather....
Gateways, search engines and directories to country related sites and information....
Arab World: Middle East, North Africa, Arab and regional information. Resources to other Arab countries....
Most local links in other categories also include extensive or interesting country information.
All sites are in English or an English version is available except where indicated with flag(s) without "+".
The flag(s) means the site is available in the language of the flag(s). If more than 5 languages (other than Arabic or English) the UN flag is used, example
means 5 languages other than English or Arabic
means it is available in Arabic only and + is available in Arabic and English
General Information Also see Travel
- All Referer Earth & environment, history, literature & arts, people, places, plants & animals, religion, science & technology, sports & everyday life....
- Arab DataNet
Country profile, key facts, overview, economic review, political structure, sector analysis, investment, government, companies....
- ArabInfo Overview, government, history, links
- ArabNet Overview, history, geography, business, culture, government, transport, tour guide, links
- Atlapedia Geography, climate, people, demography, religion, education, modern history, currency, other information....
- BBC Country Profile Key facts, figures and dates
- Britannica.Com Country info, land, people, economy, society, government, history, culture, maps, statistics, links....
- CIA World Factbook Map, geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, issues
- Country Reports Economy, defense, geography, government, people, anthem, map, news, weather, links....
- Encarta OnLine Info, land & resources, population, economy, government, history, other related items, links....
- Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
- Expedia Almanac, fast facts, communications, on business, health & safety, transportation, traveler's directory
- Info Please General info, map, geography, government, history, land & people....
- Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
- SudanNet Everything about Sudan....
- US Department of State - Background Notes People, history, government, political conditions, economy, travel, business, foreign relations....
- US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Sudan....
- World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....
Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places
- Bara Information, map, images, news, personalities....
- Kassala Features of the town, people....
- Port Sudan One of Sudan's deep-water ports on the Red Sea. Gateway to Sudan....
- Wadmadani Info, history, culture, services, historical and recent pictures, links....
- World Monuments Endangered sites: Gebel Barkal Archaeological Site, Karima
Flag, Maps, Useful Information....
- Cellular News Cellular coverage map, systems, frequencies....
- Ethnologue Languages
- Flag Description, meaning, history, interesting facts
- Flag Explanation, historical, military & political flags, subdivisions, national emblem....
- Maps Country & detailed maps
- Maps Cities & towns. Global position, altitude, WAPF (weather) forcast,
- World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
- World Paper Money Paper currency since 1970
* Arab Countries
Business and Economy
General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
- Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
- Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
- MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
- Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
- Organization of Islamic Countries + The most comprehensive database: statistical, economic and social
- Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
- Sudan and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
- US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
- World Bank Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center
- Bank of Sudan + The Central Bank of Sudan....
- Sudanese French Bank (SFB) + Provides excellent banking services domestically and internationally
Directories, Job Opportunities
Investment & Promotion....
* Arab Countries
Art, Culture & Sport
General Resources, Heritage....
Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....
- Amir Tagelsir + Writer, novelist, poet....
- Shiekh Abdel Rahim Al Bori A leading Sufi figure in Sudan, biography, works, photos, forum, Al-Zreibah....
- Arab Film Distribution - Sudan Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
- Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports
- Guide to Theatres + Activity, companies, places, events, festivals....
Music, Song & Dance....
- Omdur Sudanese music: Haqiba, golden era, contemporary, madeeh....
Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info
- Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
- AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability
- Al-Adiyat Equestrian news, statistics, archives, breeding, reports....
- Sudan Soccer News, statistics, stars, reports....
* Arab Countries
Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
- Nibrass International Private schools + Nursery, pre-school, primary....
- WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....
- Ahfad University for Women A private university in Sudan dedicated to educating women - Omdurman
- Bayan Science and Technology College + Electronic systems engineering and computer and information science
- College of Medicine At University of Khartoum
- College of Technological Sciences
- Computerman College Computer engineering, computer sciences, information technology....
- Neelain University Khartoum
- Sudan University of Science and Technology +
- University of Khartoum Located in Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman
Institutions & Organizations
- Association for the Promotion Scientific Innovation + Promoting creative people in the applied and technological fields
- Higher Education Admission Board
- Sudan-American Foundation for Education Seeks to improve education in Sudan
- Sudan Volunteer Programme A London based charity dedicated to sending graduates to Sudan to teach English
Research, Resources & Projects
- Postgraduate Medical Studies Board Bi-monthly bulletin
- Sudan Studies Association Organized for educational and scientific purposes and to facilitate the distribution of knowledge and understanding of the Sudan (USA)
* Arab Countries
History, Human Right & Politics
Ancient & Modern....
- BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
- Kalakla History of the Kalakla tribe.
- Political Geography Land and people, economy, history....
- World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....
Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....
- Advisory Council on Human Rights Official government information on human rights in Sudan
- Amnesty International + News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
- Coalition Against Slavery in Mauritania and Sudan - CASMAS A human rights abolitionist movement
- Human Rights Watch + Human rights developments & report
- US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices
- Sudan Alliance Forces + Overthrowing the Islamic fundamentalist dictatorship. Replacing it with a functioning democracy
- Free Sudan Center Freedom, human rights and democracy in Sudan
- Umma Party Together for liberation, unity and development
Related Sites, Articles....
- Constitution Background, history & news
- Elections Results, parties, parliament, electoral institutes, electoral calendar, political database....
* Arab Countries
Visit Arab Media for satellite stations & Arab newspapers
- Akhbar Al-Youm Daily newspaper....
- Al-Adwaa Daily newspaper....
- Al-Daraweesh Monthly magazine (UK)
- Al-Mushahid Daily newspaper....
- Al-Rai Al-Aam Daily newspaper
- Alwaan Daily newspaper
OnLine News, Newsletters, News Agencies....
- About Sudan News, articles, interviews, action, democracy....
- AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
- Nile Kids Online magazine in English for Sudanese kids
- Sudan Gate + Provide a reasonable and reliable sources of information for Sudanese communities abroad
- SudaNile Online newspaper....
- Sudan Tribune News and views, information site on Sudan....
- Washington Post News & references
- Yahoo full news coverage
Radio, TV, Internet....
- Face2Face Wajhan li Wajh - TV program dealing with social issues....
Articles, Reports, Cartoons....
- One World + Archives, articles and news from different sources
* Arab Countries
Visit Arab Organizations for Pan-Arab, middle East, North Africa and regional organizations
Government & Organizations....
Government, Ministries, Overseas Missions, Embassies....
- Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
- Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1956 (with pictures)
- Committee For Executing National Register Of Sudanese Experts
- Council Of The Ministers + Information concerning investment ,econmic growth, cabinet ministries and members
- Geological Research Authority The principal point of contact for investors in the mining sector
- Ministry of Higher Education & Science Research
- Ministry of Investment + Creating a favorable investment climate and developing promotional tools
- National Information Centre
- Sudan Customs + Collect indirect taxes from imports, exports and excise
- Sudan Government
- Taxation Chamber + Business profits Tax , the personal income Tax , the real estates Tax and the stamp duties
- Embassy of Sudan - Berlin, Germany
- Embassy of Sudan - Bucharest, Romania + Consular affairs, economy & business, human rights, slavery, tourism, Sudan....
- Embassy of Sudan in Ottowa, Canada Consular affairs, economy & business, peace, tourism, Sudan....
- Embassy of Sudan in Paris, France Consular affairs, economy, tourism, Sudan....
- Embassy of Sudan in South Africa Consular affairs, news, trade, tourism, Sudan....
- Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Vienna About Sudan, constitution, investment, tourism, economy....
Corporations, Organizations, Public Hospitals and Industrial Entities
Centers, Institutions, Societies....
- Al-Mahgoub Foundation Main concern is the well being and the good future of Sudan
- Khartoum Cheshire Home A rehabilitation center for children with a physical disability
- Sudan Internet Society addressing key issues about the roles and uses of Internet
- British Embassy Information about the Embassy, about British Government policies and advice for visitors to and from the UK....
- British Counsil Library and information services, events, news, conferences, learn English
- Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières Activities, news, press releases....
- International Rescue Committee Sudan. Program Activities: Women in Development, Health, Capacity Building for Sudanese Organizations
- International Rescue Committee South Sudan. Involved in education and training, primary health care, water and sanitation....
- OXFAM A fair world in which people control their own lives and their basic rights are achieved....
- US Committee for Refugees + Reports on conditions for refugees and internally displaced persons
- USAID Assistance to Sudan....
- World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
- World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation
* Arab Countries
Travel & Tourism
Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters Services
- Airports Airport names, cities and codes
Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info
- Sea Desert Tours Dedicated to maximizing the ease and comfort for travelers both within Libya , Egypt and Sudan
- Raidan Travel & Tours Tourism in Sudan icluding visa arrangements
- Adventures of Sudan Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
- Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
- Lonely Planet Travel information
- Middle East Travel Accommodation, history, after hours, travel info, addresses, cities & sights, business....
- Travel Guide General & travel info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
- World Travel Guide Travel information, regions & places....
Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....
- All Hotels Hotels, description & rates
- Hostels Addresses & location
- Hotels Travel Hotels directory & tourist information
- Inn26 Hotels and motels directory, local info....
Health & Travel Tips
- Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
- Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
- US Consular Information Warning, visa, security, health, crime/drug penalties....
- Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure and conditions by city
- Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast, sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....
* Arab Countries
Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links
Gateways to Sudan
- Sudan Home Selected links to Sudanese sites on the web, directory, information....
- Sudanese Online Resource for Sudan & Sudanese on the net
* Arab Countries