Algeria, The Country & Peoples
This page contains links to sites in Algeria and Algeria related sites.
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Algeria, Arab. Al Djazair, Fr. Algerie, officially Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, republic (1995 est. pop. 28,539,000), 919,590 sq mi (2,381,741 sq km), NW Africa, bordered by Mauritania, Morocco, and Western Sahara (W), the Mediterranean Sea (N), Tunisia and Libya (E), and Niger and Mali (S). The principal cities are Algiers (the capital) and Oran. The Atlas Mountains divide northern Algeria into a coastal lowland strip (the Tell) and a semiarid plateau. In the south is the much larger, but arid and sparsely populated, Saharan region; Algeria's highest point, Mt. Tahat (9,541 ft/2,908 m), in the Ahaggar Mts., is located here. About a quarter of Algeria's workforce are farmers, producing cereals, wine, citrus fruits, and cork. Mining and manufacturing, developed since the 1960s, contribute the bulk of the national income. Petroleum is the leading export, and much natural gas is produced, with proven reserves that are among the world's largest. The state plays a leading role in planning the economy and owns many important industrial concerns, but a 1994 law permitted privatization of some state firms.
Algeria is divided into 48 wilayas, or provinces. In addition to the capital, major cities include Annaba, Blida, Constantine, Mostaganem, Oran, Sétif, Sidi-bel-Abbès, Skikda, and Tlemcen. The great majority of Algeria’s inhabitants are of Arab-Berber descent; the Berbers, beginning in the late 7th cent. A.D., adopted the Arabic language and Islam from the small number of Arabs who settled in the country. Relations between Arabic-speaking and Berber-speaking Algerians have been marked by tension since Arabic was made the sole national language (1980); that policy was reversed in 2002, when Tamazight, a Berber tongue, was also recognized as a national language. Also French is widely spoken..
The earliest known inhabitants of the region that is now Algeria were Berber-speaking nomads who were settled there by the 2d millennium BC As Numidia, it became (9th cent. BC) a province of Carthage and then (106 BC) of Rome; during the Christian era, St. was bishop at Hippo (now Annaba). With Rome's decline in the 5th cent. AD, Algeria was conquered by the Vandals (430–31), the Byzantine Empire (6th cent.), and finally, in the late 7th and early 8th cent., by the Arabs, whose introduction of Islam profoundly altered the character of the area.
Spain captured the coastal cities in the 15th cent. but was expelled (mid-16th cent.) with the help of the Ottoman Turks, who assumed control. During this period the Algerian coast was a stronghold of pirates and a center of the slave trade. France invaded Algeria in 1830 and declared it a colony in 1848. Europeans began to arrive in large numbers, dominating the government and the economy, and leaving the native Muslim population with scant political or economic power.
A nationalist movement began to develop after World War I, and a war for independence, led by the National Liberation Front (FLN), broke out in 1954. After more than seven years of bitter fighting, in which at least 100,000 Muslim and 10,000 French soldiers were killed, Algeria became independent on July 3, 1962.
Since independence, Algeria has been a prominent nonaligned state and a champion of the movements against white minority rule in Africa. It also has supported the protracted struggle of the Polisario Front for the independence of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara) from Morocco. Ahmed Ben Bella, prime minister and then president of Algeria after independence, was deposed by Houari Boumedienne in 1965. After Boumedienne's death (1978), Chadli Benjedid succeeded (1979) him as president. Riots in 1988 led Pres. Benjedid to reduce the role of the state economically and of the FLN politically.
After Islamic fundamentalists won 42% of the seats in the first round of parliamentary elections in Dec. 1991, the army forced Benjedid to resign (1992) and canceled the election. A civilian-led state council was installed, but real power resided with the army. The fundamentalist party was banned and its leaders arrested. Fundamentalists launched a guerrilla insurrection, and Algeria was torn by violence from both sides.
In 1994 Gen. Liamine Zeroual, the defense minister, was appointed president, replacing the state council; he won a presidential election the following year. Zeroual resigned early in 1999 and presidential elections held in Apr., 1999, were won by Abdelaziz Bouteflika, the candidate of the military oligarchy; the opposition candidates had withdrawn before the vote. One of the main guerrilla groups renounced its struggle against the government in June 1999; however, other groups continued to wage war. By mid-1999, 100,000 people had been killed in the violence and repression that began in 1992. Under an amnesty approved in Sept. 1999, 80% of the Islamic guerrillas surrendered to the government by the mid-Jan. 2000 deadline, and the violence has since greatly diminished. The easing of the fighting has brought such issues as government corruption and widespread poverty and unemployment (estimated at 30%) to the fore. In addition, in 2001 there were large demonstrations and clashes with police by Berbers, who remained deeply unhappy about Arabic’s status as the sole national language, a policy that was reversed the following year. Berber protests also sparked demonstrations against the country’s stagnant economy by non-Berber Algerians. Parliamentary elections in May, 2002, were boycotted by a number of major opposition parties and many voters, and the FLN won more than half the seats.
French president Jacques Chirac made a state visit to Algeria in Mar., 2003; it was the first such visit since Algerian independence. Two months later a strong earthquake devastated many towns east of the capital, killing more than 2,200 people. The ineffective official response to the disaster led to public outrage and widespread criticism of the government. Late in 2003, tensions between the president and Ali Benflis, the FLN party leader and a former prime minister, led to a split in the government and within the party. Bouteflika was returned to office in Apr., 2004, in an election that observers called Algeria’s fairest to date, but the vote for Bouteflika (83%) led Benflis, his main opponent, to accuse the government of massive fraud.
Copyright (c) 2003 Columbia University Press.
Used by permission of Columbia University Press.
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General Information Also see Travel
- Algerie Mon beau pays perdu!
- Algerien History, country, population....
- All Referer Earth & environment, history, literature & arts, people, places, plants & animals, religion, science & technology, sports & everyday life
- Arab DataNet
Country profile, key facts, overview, economic review, political structure, sector analysis, investment, government, companies....
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- Encyclopaedia of the Orient Geography, politics, economy, health, education, religion, people, history, anthem, cities....
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- Nation By Nation Info, government, human rights, news, geography, history, people, links....
- US Department of State - Background Notes People, history, government, political conditions, economy, travel, business, foreign relations....
- US Library of Congress Everything you ever wanted to know about Algeria....
- World66 General info, cities, history, people, economy, getting around, getting there, links....
Cities, Towns, Municipalities & Places
- Boussemghoun + The Ksar, photos, Other Algerian towns....
- Constantine Ou cirta est une ville digne d'être classee parmi les merveilles du monde
- Ghardaia Desert Cities - a City of Stone
- Misserghin Vous trouverez ici l'histoire du Village et de ses Habitants
- M'Zab + Architecture, Institutions, Mozabite women, photos....
- M'Zab Valley + Info, pictures, personalities, culture....
- Tassili N'Ajjer National Park A Natural World Heritage site
- Tebessa L'antique Theveste, importante ville romaine
- Tipasa Now and then, photographs
- Tizi Ouzou
- World Heritage Cities +
MZab Valley - Each of the villages is laid out in a series of concentric circles extending from the mosque to the ramparts
- World Monuments Endangered sites: Tipasa ou Parcs Archeologiques
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- Maps Country & city maps
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- World Clock Local time, sunrise, sunset, GMT offset, daylight saving....
- World Paper Money Paper currency since 1924
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Business and Economy
General, Economy, Reports & Statistics
- Algeria and the IMF Position in the fund, reports....
- Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Fact sheet (pdf) & travel information....
- Bilateral Relations with Japan Diplomatic, investment, economic cooperation, residents....
- Business-dz + Market watch, currency, tenders, economic news....
- MBendi Business information, news, industries, events
- Muslim Trade Network Trade reference directory and guide....
- Organization of Islamic Countries + The most comprehensive database: statistical, economic and social
- Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries - OPEC Statistics....
- Ports Focus Ports, harbours, marinas....
- US Department of Energy Analysis, information, oil, natural gas, coal, electricity....
- US Department of State Country reports on economic policy and trade practices - 1999
- US Trade Commercial environment
- World Bank +
Overview, news & events, data & statistics, publications & reports, development topics, projects & programs, Public Information Center
- Al Baraka Bank of Algeria +
General mission to contribute to the development of the economic activity in Algeria
- Union Bank + Investment Banking
- Banque d'Algerie
- Banque Commercial et Industrielle d'Algerie
- Banque National d'Algerie
Directories, Job Opportunities
Investment & Promotion....
- Bejaia Port Enterprise, history, photos....
- FINALEP The first capital corporation investment in Algeria
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Art, Culture & Sport
General resources, Heritage....
- Cuisine-DZ La reference de la gastronomie algerienne
- Musee National des Antiquites
- Musee de Tipasa
Art, Literature, Photography, Cinema....
- Al-Taher Wattar + Journalist, novelist, play writer....
- Abou Al-Yakdan Journalist, scholar, author and poet
- Hamidouche Galerie Paintings by Layachi Hamidouche
- Montres-Berberes L'art Berbere
- Mzab Photos + Mosques, minarets, ramparts and towers
- Patio of the Lost Land + Theatre
- Paysage Algerie +
A beautiful collection of pictures of the cities and the villages of Algeria
- Photos of Algeria + Sea, complex, sahara, mountains
- Arab Film Distribution - Algeria Features a wide range of narrative films, documentaries, visual essays and ethnographic films
- Internet Movie Database Movie & TV reports
Music, Song & Dance....
- Abdelkader Saadoun Algerian King of Rai in the UK
- Cheb i Sabbah Music, shows, press
- Cheb Khaled King of Rai Music - Unofficial website
- Rachid Taha Few important things, discography, biography, CDs and/or videos - Unofficial website
- Souad Massi A talented and courageous guitarist and vocalist
- Algeria Music Introduction to Rai music
Cultural, Scientific, Environmental, Sporting Entities & Info
- Al-Jahidhiya Literary and cultural association
- Algerian Astronomy Association The first Algerian scientific /astronomical /cultural site based in Algeria
- Animal Info Threatened species, environmental and social data
- AquaStat Information on quantity and quality of freshwater and its availability
- Water Resources and Activities + Water-management initiatives
- L'Athletisme Algerien 1962-2002
- Federation Algerienne de Football History, administration, meetings, events, results, photographs....
- Mouloudia Club + Football - Oran
- Sahara Marathon + This is your chance to take a week of your life
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Schools, Colleges, Academies, Universities & Polytechnics
- Ecole Militaire Polytechnique
- Ecole Nationale de Polytechnique
- L'Ets SALIM Rouiba
- National High School of Hydraulic Studies - Blida +
- Universite Abou Bekr Belkaid Tlemcen
- Universite d'Alger
- Universite Badji Mokhtar Annaba Graduation in various fields of water sciences and techniques
- Universite de Batna
- Universite de Bilda
- Universite Djillali + Liabes
- Universite de la Formation Continue +
- Universite de Jijel
- Universite M'hamed BOUGARA de Boumerdes + Four Technological faculties including 23 departments
- Universite Mentouri + Constantine
- Universite de Mostaganem
- University of Islamic Sciences Emir Abdelkader + Train students for an islamic/ scientific education
- Centre Nationale de l'Enseignement Professionnel a Distance CNEPD National center distance education of professions
- Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Service + Training staff in a graduation and post a graduation studies - Setif
- WorldWide Classroom University & adult education, K12 & teen....
Institutions & Organizations
- Agence Nationale pour le Developpement de la Recherche Universitaire
- Centre de Developpement des Technologies Avancees
- Centre de Recherche en Anthropologie Sociale et Culturelle
- Direction Education + Tlemcen
- Institut de Developpement des Grandes Cultures
- Institut de Formation
- Institut National de Recherche en Education
Participate actively in the exchanges of information inside the country as outside....
- Institut National Specialisee en Arts et Industries Graphiques
- Maghreb Institute of Fiscal and Customs Studies Post graduation specialized in taxation and customs
Research, Resources & Projects
- African Regional Co-operative Agreement- AFRA Research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology
- Acadamic Research Network Gathers scientific and technical matter
- Algerian Materials Research Society An interest in promoting interdisciplinary materials research
- Centre de Recherche en Astronomie, Astrophysique et Geophysique +
- Directory of National Competencies for Technical Cooperation +
A directory of Algerian experts and competencies in all scientific and technical domains
- Research Centre for Scientific & Technical Information
- Universal Clock + A Universal, luni-solar, semi-centennial calendar model with the week of six days!
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History, Human Right & Politics
Ancient & Modern....
- Abdelaziz Bouteflika Le site President de la Republique
- BBC Timeline A chronology of key events
- L'histoire de l'Algerie
- Memoires d'Algerie Un lieu de publication de documents historiques, d'archives, et de temoignages sur l'Algerie
- Political Geography Land and people, economy, government, history....
- World Statesmen Flags, chronology, rulers, governors, ministers, commissioners....
Human Rights, Politics & Political Parties....
- Algeria Watch
- Algeria Watch International To create greater awareness around the world of the tragic conflict in Algeria
- Amnesty International + News, reports, urgent action. Latest annual report....
- Human Rights Watch + Human rights developments & report
- US Department of State Country reports on human rights practices
- High Islamic Committee Dealing with social & cultural problems
- National Liberation Front Party + To build a modern Algerian state
- Mouvement Democratique et Social Le combat contre l'integrisme et son aile armee le terrorisme
- Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Democratie Parti politique, biographie du Dr Said Sadi
Related Sites, Articles....
- Constitution Background, history & news
- Elections Results, parties, parliament, electoral institutes, electoral calendar, political database....
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Visit Arab Media for satellite stations & Arab newspapers
- El-Heddaf Weekly sport newspaper
- El-Khabar + Daily newspaper
- El-Moudjahid La revolution par le peuple et pour le peuple
- El-Chaab Daily newspaper
- El-Watan Le qoutidien independant
- Horizons Qoutidien National D'information
- Kabyle Le premier magazine en ligne du peuple kabyle
- La Tribune L'autre regard sur l'info....
- Le Matin
- Le Quotidien d'Oran Edition nationale d'information
- Le Soir d'Algerie Qoutidien independant
- Liberte Le droit de savoir, le devoir d'informer
OnLine News, Newsletters, News agencies....
- Agence Algerienne d'Information (AAI) + Agence de presse privee specialisee en information economiques et sociales
- Algeria Events Latest news from Algeria, business, sci/tech, sports, economy, national, world news
- Algeria Interface + News, focus, profiles, archives, politics, business....
- Algerian News Agency + News, week in review, business, magazine....
- AllAfrica.Com News plus, news wire....
- M'Zab Online News, weather, links....
- Washington Post News & references
- Wissal Online news, economy, sport, culture, family....
- Yahoo full news coverage
Radio, TV, Internet....
- Algerian Radio + Music, news and entertainment
- Algerian TV Live TV....
Articles, Reports, Cartoons....
- One World + Archives, articles and news from different sources
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Visit Arab Organizations for Pan-Arab, Middle East, North Africa and regional organizations
Government & Organizations, Corporations, Societies....
Government, Ministries, Councils....
- Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members
- Political Leaders Dates and figures of the leadership since 1962 (with pictures)
- Autorite de Regulation de la Poste et des Telecommunications
- Centre de Developpement des Energies Renouvelables
- Commission d'Organisation et de Surveillance des Opérations de Bourse
- Conseil de la Nation
- Court of Auditors In charge of public purses, community territorial and publicly-owned establishments
- Economic and Social National Council To evaluate and study all questions relating to the economic and social development....
- Institution des Archives Nationales +
- Ministere de l'Amenagement du Territoire et de l'Environnement
- Ministere du Commerce
- Ministere de la Communication
- Ministere de la Culture
- Ministere de l'Energie et des Mines
- Ministere des Finances
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs +
- Ministere de la Formation et de l'Enseignement Professionnels
- Ministere de l’Habitat et l’Urbanisme +
- Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research +
- Ministere de l'Industrie et de la Restructuration
- Ministry of National Education
- Ministere de la Peche et des Ressources Halieutiques
- Ministere de la Poste et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication Philatelie, news....
- Ministere des Postes et Telecommunications La Poste
- Ministere des Ressources en Eau
- Ministry of Social Action and National Solidarity +
Aiming at the reduction of the social fracture and a right distribution of the wealth
- Ministere de la Solidarite Nationale et de la Famille
- Ministere des Transports
- Ministère du Travail et de la Sécurité Sociale
- National Agency for Amelioration and Development of Housing
+ The promotion and development of real estate market
- National Office of Statistics + Statistical tables in social and economical topics
- National People's Assembly + Roles and functions, history, constitution
- Office National de la Meteorologie
- Office National de Recherche Geologique et Miniere
- Sante-Algerie Official portal of the Ministry of Health, Population and Hospital Reformation
- Services du Chef du Gouvernement
- Algerian Consulate - London, UK Embassy, Visa travel information, Country profile, Algerian citizens affairs....
- Embassy of Algeria - Jakarta, Indonisia Information, economy, consular section, news, links....
- Embassy of Algeria - Lisbon, Portugal
- Embassy of Algeria - Ottowa, Canada + Algeria, economy, institutions, consular affairs, media, relations....
- Embassy of Algeria - Prague, Czech Republic
- Embassy of Algeria - Seoul, Korea + The information provided will help you get better acquainted with Algeria
- Embassy of Algeria - Washington, USA Information, economy, consular section, news, links....
- Permanent Mission to UN + Algeria info, its foreign policy and its activities....
- Permanent Mission to the United Nations - Geneva
- Wilaya de Ain Temouchent
Corporations, Organizations, Industrial Entities and Public Hospitals
- Algerian Energy Company + Energy from Synergy
- BATICIM + The Industrialized Steel Structure Constructions Company
- DZ Network Internet Center + Responsable for the Internet domaine name space
- NAFTAL Bunker and Jet fuel supplier in Algerian ports and airports
- National Company of Gold Exploration + ENOR - Algerian Jointed Stock Company
- Sonatrach The Algerian oil and gas company
- Sonelgaz + Electrical energy production and gas production
Centers, Institutions, Societies....
- Centre National d'Etudes et d'Analyses pour la Planification
- Centre National du Registre du Commerce Une institution administrative autonome....
- Centre de Recherches Scientifiques et Techniques sur les Regions Arides To study better the problems of aridity and desertification....
- El-Rassed Association des Sciences et d'Astronomie
- Ambassade de Russie, Alger Embassy of Russia, Algiers
- United Nations Le Programme des Nations Unies pour le developpement
- US Committee for Refugees + Reports on conditions for refugees and internally displaced persons
- World Food Programme Fight against global hunger....
- World Health Organization Tobacco & health, socio-economic situation
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Travel & Tourism
Airlines, Air, Sea & Coach Charters services
- Aigle Azur Schedules, reservation, tarif....
- Air Algerie Schedules, agencies, reservation, FAQ....
- Algerie Ferries
- Airports Airport names, cities and codes
Travel, Tours, Guides.... More country info
- Al-Niaama Travel and tourism
- Afara Voyages Expeditons in the Sahara, slides
- Nat-Dz Adventures in the desert
- Numidia Travel Services + Welcome to the world of tourism and trips
- Adventures of Algeria Getting there & costs, safety & health, visa, climate, cities, holidays....
- Africa Guide Introduction, visitor info, accommodation, tours....
- Lonely Planet Travel information
- Travel Guide General & trave info, money, duty free, health, accommodation, visas....
- World Travel Directory Travel information, regions & places....
Hotels, Resorts, Inns, Hostels....
- Dar Diaf Hotels Alger, Cheraga
- Hilton Algiers Algiers
- Hotel le Rocher + Located at Boumerdes
- Sidi Fredj Hotels + Located on a peninsula, in the district of Staoueli, Algiers
- Algeria Hotels Travel Guide Offers hotels and resorts online reservations
- All Hotels Hotels, description & rates
- Hostels Addresses & location
- Inn26 Hotels and motels directory, local info....
Health & Travel Tips
- Foreign & Commonwealth Office Travel information, country advise, latest travel updates....
- Travel Document Systems Passports, visas, travel documents
- Travel Store Your travel guide....
- US Consular Information Warning, visa, security, health, crime/drug penalties....
- Weather Underground Temperature, humidity, pressure
and conditions by city
- Yahoo Weather By city. Forcast,
sunrise, sunset, humidity, wind, dewpoint....
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Visit Arab Gateways for Arab and other country links
Gateways to Algeria
- Algeria.Com Your guide to Algeria....
- AlgeriaInfo Info, gateway & media....
- AlgerieSite Algerian related sites
- BestAlgeria Gateway....
- ElDjazair Gateway....
- Musique Algerienne + Algerian music web directory....
- WebAlgerie Gateway, search, chat, services....
- Webguide-Algerie Directory and Guides
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